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湿地公约

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关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约 

编辑 

湿地公约即关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约。

《关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约》(简称《湿地公约》)缔结于1971年,致力于通过国际合作,实现全球湿地保护与合理利用,是当今具有较大影响力的多边环境公约之一,现有163个缔约国。中国于1992年加入《湿地公约》。

1背景

2全文

3英文全文

4近年活动

5湿地保护

1背景 

湿地与森林、海洋并称全球三大生态系统,也是价值最高的生态系统。根据《湿地公约》的定义,湿地包括

沼泽、泥炭地、湿草甸、湖泊、河流、滞蓄洪区、河口三角洲、滩涂、水库、池塘、水稻田以及低潮时水深浅小于6米的海域地带等。

湿地具有涵养水源、净化水质、调蓄洪水、控制土壤侵蚀、补充地下水、美化环境、调节气候、维持碳循环和保护海岸等极为重要的生态功能,是生物多样性的重要发源地之一,因此也被誉为"地球之肾""天然水库""天然物种库" 据联合国环境署2002年的权威研究数据显示,1公顷湿地生态系统每年创造的价值高达1.4万美元,是热带雨林的7倍,是农田生态系统的160倍。湿地还是许多珍稀野生动植物赖以生存的基础,对维护生态平衡、保护生物多样性具有特殊的意义。

多年来,全球湿地伴随着全球化进程的加快而不断遭到破坏。因此,保护湿地成为一个世界性的问题。

197122日,来自18个国家的代表在伊朗南部海滨小城拉姆萨尔签署了一个旨在保护和合理利用全球湿地的公约--《关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约》(Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat ,简称《湿地公约》)。该公约于19751221日正式生效,目前,有158个缔约方。中国于1992年加入该公约。公约主张以湿地保护和"明智利用"为原则,在不损坏湿地生态系统的范围之内可持续利用湿地。现在国际重要湿地数量已达1886个。

《湿地公约》的宗旨是通过各成员国之间的合作加强对世界湿地资源的保护及合理利用,以实现生态系统的持续发展。目前,《湿地公约》已成为国际重要的自然保护公约之一,1832块在生态学、植物学、动物学、湖沼学或水文学方面具有独特意义的湿地被列入国际重要湿地名录,总面积约1.70亿公顷。

2全文 

关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约(简称《湿地公约》)

(拉姆萨尔,197122日,经1982123日的议定书修订)

各缔约国,

确认人与其环境相互依存;

考虑到湿地的基本生态功能是作为水文状况的调节者,是某种独特植物区系和动物区系,特别是水禽赖以存活的生境;

深信湿地是具有重大经济、文化、科学和娱乐价值的一种资源,一旦丧失则不可弥补;

希望制止目前和今后对湿地的蚕食,乃至丧失;

确认水禽在季节性迁徙时可能会超越国界,因此,应视为一种国际资源;

确信具有远见的国家政策与协调一致的国际行动相结合,可以确保湿地及其动植物区系得到保护;

兹议定条款如下:

第一条

1.为本公约之目的,湿地是指,不问其为天然或人工、长久或暂时的沼泽地、泥炭地或水域地带,带有静止或流动的淡水、半咸水或咸水水体,包括低潮时水深不超过6米的水域。

2.为本公约之目的,水禽系指从生态学角度看以湿地为生存条件的鸟类。

第二条

1.每个缔约国应指定其领土内适当湿地列入由依第八条所设管理局保管的《国际重要湿地名录》(下称《名录》),该《名录》由根据第八条设立的办事处保管。每块湿地的边界应在地图上精确标明和划定,可包括与湿地毗邻的河岸和海岸地区,以及位于湿地内的岛屿或低潮时水深超过6米的海洋水体,特别是具有水禽生境意义的地区岛屿或水体。

2.选择列入《名录》的湿地,应根据它们在生态学、植物学、动物学、湖沼学或水文学方面的国际意义来考虑。首先应列入一年四季均对水禽具有国际意义的湿地。

3.将湿地列入《名录》,并不损害其所属缔约国的专有主权。

4.每个缔约国在按照第九条规定签署本公约或交存其批准书或加入书时,应至少指定一块湿地列入《名录》。

5.任何缔约国均有权将其领土内的其他湿地增列入《名录》,扩大已列入《名录》的湿地的边界,或者出于紧急的国家利益的考虑,取消列入《名录》的湿地或缩小其边界,并应尽快将这类变动,通知负责第八条规定的常务办事处的组织或政府。

6.每个缔约国在指定列入《名录》的湿地和就列入《名录》的其领土内的湿地行使修改条文的权利时,应考虑其对保护、管理和合理使用迁徙水禽所负的国际责任。

第三条

1.各缔约国应制订和执行规划,以促进对列入《名录》的湿地的保护,并尽可能地合理使用其领土内的湿地。

2.每个缔约国应作出安排,以便尽早获悉,由于技术发展、污染或其他人为干扰,列入《名录》的其领土内的湿地的生态特性经发生变化,正在变化,或有可能发生变化。有关这类变化的情况应立即通知负责第八条规定的常务办事处的组织或政府。

第四条

1.每个缔约国应在湿地(不论是否已列入《名录》)建立自然保护区,以促进对湿地和水禽的保护,并采取充分措施予以看管。

2.当某一缔约国出于紧急的国家利益的考虑而取消列入《名录》的湿地或缩小其边界时,应尽可能弥补湿地资源的任何损失,特别应建立新的自然保护区,以供水禽生存,并在同一地区或其他地区保护原来生境的适当部分。

3.各缔约国应鼓励就湿地及其动植物区系开展研究,交换资料和出版物。

4.各缔约国应努力通过管理增加合适的湿地上的水禽数目。

5.各缔约国应加强培训能胜任湿地研究、管理和看管的人员。

第五条

缔约国应就履行《公约》规定的义务,特别是在湿地扩及一个以上缔约国的领土或一条水系为数缔约国所共有的情况下,相互协商。同时,各缔约国应努力协调和支持目前和将来就保护湿地及其动植物所制订的政策和条例。

第六条

1.设立缔约国会议,以检查和促进这项公约的实施。第八条第1段所提及的常务办事处至少每3年召开一次缔约国会议之例会,除非会议另有决定。在至少有2/3的缔约国提出书面要求的情况下,也可以召开特别会议。缔约国会议的每次例会均应确定举行下一次例会的时间及地点。

2.缔约国会议具有下列职权:

(a)讨论本公约的执行情况;

(b)讨论《名录》的增补和修改;

(c)审议根据第三条第2段提供的关于《名录》中所列湿地生态特性变化的资料;

(d)就保护、管理和合理使用湿地及其动植物问题,向缔约国提出一般性建议或具体建议;

(e)要求有关国际机构就涉及湿地的国际问题提出报告和提供统计资料;

(f)通过其他建议或决议,来促进本公约的执行。

3.各缔约国应保证从事湿地管理的各级负责人了解并考虑此类会议关于保护、管理和合理使用湿地及其动植物的建议。

4.缔约国会议为每次会议制定议事规则。

5.缔约国会议应制定本公约的财务条例,并定期对条例进行审议。缔约国会议应在其每次例会上以出席会议并参加表决之缔约国的2/3多数通过下一财务期的预算。

6.各缔约国应根据出席缔约国会议例会并参加表决之所有缔约国一致通过的会费额度向预算纳款。

第七条

1.参加上述会议的各缔约国代表应包括在科学、行政或其他有关方面知识渊博、经验丰富的湿地或水禽专家。

2.出席会议的每一缔约国有一票表决权;建议、决议和决定由出席会议及参加投票的缔约国的简单多数通过,除非本公约另作其他规定。

第八条

1.国际自然及自然资源保护联盟执行本公约规定的常务办事处职责,直至全体缔约国的2/3多数指定另一个组织或政府时止。

2.常务办事处职责如下:

(a)协助召集和组织第六条规定的会议;

(b)保管《具有国际意义的湿地名录》,并接收各缔约国根据第二条第5段就列入《名录》的湿地的增补、扩大、取消或缩小所提供的资料;

(c)接收各缔约国根据第三条第2段就列人《名录》的湿地的生态特性变化所提供的资料;

(d)把对《名录》的任何修改或《名录》中所列湿地的特性变化通知所有缔约国,并为在下届会议上讨论这些事项作出安排;

(e)把会议就《名录》修改或《名录》中所列湿地的特性变化提出的建议通知有关缔约国。

第九条

1.本公约无限期开放签字。

2.联合国任何会员国、任何专门机构或国际原子能机构的会员国或国际法院规约任何当事国得依下列方式之一成为本公约缔约国;

(a)对于批准不附保留之签署;

(b)待批准之签署,继后批准;

(c)加入。

3.向联合国教育、科学及文化组织总干事(下称"保存人")交存一份批准书或加入书;批准或加入即为生效。

第十条

1.本公约在7个国家按第九条第2段方式成为本公约缔约国起4个月后生效。

2.本公约嗣后对每个缔约国应自该国对于批准不附保留之签署或交存批准书或加入书之日起4个月后生效。

第十条

1.根据本条,缔约国可就《公约》修订问题召集会议,对《公约》进行修订。

2.任何缔约国均可提出修订建议。

3.所建议的任何修正案的文本及修订理由须通过根据《公约》行使常设主席团(下称"主席团")职责的组织或政府,并由主席团随即转告所有缔约国。缔约国对文本的任何意见要在自主席团把修正案通知缔约国之日起3个月内通知主席团。主席团须于意见提交的最后一天之后立即把截至该日所收到的全部意见转告各缔约国。

4.主席团将根据1/3缔约国的书面要求召集缔约国会议,审议根据第3段提出的修正案。主席团将就会议的时间与地点同各缔约国进行协商。

5.修正案须经与会缔约国投票表决以2/3的多数通过。

6.被通过的修正案将于2/3缔约国向保管者交存接受卡之日后第4个月的第一天起对接受修正案的缔约国生效。对在2/3缔约国交存接受书之日后交存接受书的任何缔约国,修正案将于该国交存接受书之日后第4个月第一天开始生效。

第十一条

1.本公约将无限期有效。

2.任何缔约国可在本公约对该国生效之日起5年后书面通知保存人退出本公约。退约应于保存人接得通知之日起4个月后生效。

第十二条

1.保存人应尽快将下述事项通知所有业已签署或加入本公约的国家:

(a)《公约》之签署;

(b)本公约批准书之交存;

(c)本公约加入书之交存;

(d)本公约生效日期;

(e)退约通知。

2.本公约生效之后,保存人应根据《联合国宪章》第102条在联合国秘书处予以登记。

下列签署人经正式授权签署本公约,以昭信守。

197122日订于拉姆萨尔,原奉以英文本、法文本、德文本和俄文本各式一份。所有文本具有同等效力。文本均交保存人,保存人则将正式副本分送所有缔约国。

3英文全文

Article 1

For the purpose of this Convention wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.

For the purpose of this Convention waterfowl are birds ecologically dependent on wetlands.

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Article 2

Each Contracting Party shall designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance, hereinafter referred to as "the List" which is maintained by the bureau established under Article 8. The boundaries of each wetland shall be precisely described and also delimited on a map and they may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands, especially where these have importance as waterfowl habitat.

Wetlands should be selected for the List on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology. In the first instance wetlands of international importance to waterfowl at any season should be included.

The inclusion of a wetland in the List does not prejudice the exclusive sovereign rights of the Contracting Party in whose territory the wetland is situated.

Each Contracting Party shall designate at least one wetland to be included in the List when signing this Convention or when depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, as provided in Article 9.

Any Contracting Party shall have the right to add to the List further wetlands situated within its territory, to extend the boundaries of those wetlands already included by it in the List, or, because of its urgent national interests, to delete or restrict the boundaries of wetlands already included by it in the List and shall, at the earliest possible time, inform the organization or government responsible for the continuing bureau duties specified in Article 8 of any such changes.

Each Contracting Party shall consider its international responsibilities for the conservation, management and wise use of migratory stocks of waterfowl, both when designating entries for the List and when exercising its right to change entries in the List relating to wetlands within its territory.

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Article 3

The Contracting Parties shall formulate and implement their planning so as to promote the conservation of the wetlands included in the List, and as far as possible the wise use of wetlands in their territory.

Each Contracting Party shall arrange to be informed at the earliest possible time if the ecological character of any wetland in its territory and included in the List has changed, is changing or is likely to change as the result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference. Information on such changes shall be passed without delay to the organization or government responsible for the continuing bureau duties specified in Article 8.

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Article 4

Each Contracting Party shall promote the conservation of wetlands and waterfowl by establishing nature reserves on wetlands, whether they are included in the List or not, and provide adequately for their wardening.

Where a Contracting Party in its urgent national interest, deletes or restricts the boundaries of a wetland included in the List, it should as far as possible compensate for any loss of wetland resources, and in particular it should create additional nature reserves for waterfowl and for the protection, either in the same area or elsewhere, of an adequate portion of the original habitat.

The Contracting Parties shall encourage research and the exchange of data and publications regarding wetlands and their flora and fauna.

The Contracting Parties shall endeavour through management to increase waterfowl populations on appropriate wetlands.

The Contracting Parties shall promote the training of personnel competent in the fields of wetland research, management and wardening.

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Article 5

The Contracting Parties shall consult with each other about implementing obligations arising from the Convention especially in the case of a wetland extending over the territories of more than one Contracting Party or where a water system is shared by Contracting Parties. They shall at the same time endeavour to coordinate and support present and future policies and regulations concerning the conservation of wetlands and their flora and fauna.

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Article 6

There shall be established a Conference of the Contracting Parties to review and promote the implementation of this Convention. The Bureau referred to in Article 8, paragraph 1, shall convene ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Contracting Parties at intervals of not more than three years, unless the Conference decides otherwise, and extraordinary meetings at the written requests of at least one third of the Contracting Parties. Each ordinary meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties shall determine the time and venue of the next ordinary meeting.

The Conference of the Contracting Parties shall be competent:

to discuss the implementation of this Convention;

to discuss additions to and changes in the List;

to consider information regarding changes in the ecological character of wetlands included in the List provided in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 3;

to make general or specific recommendations to the Contracting Parties regarding the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands and their flora and fauna;

to request relevant international bodies to prepare reports and statistics on matters which are essentially international in character affecting wetlands;

to adopt other recommendations, or resolutions, to promote the functioning of this Convention.

The Contracting Parties shall ensure that those responsible at all levels for wetlands management shall be informed of, and take into consideration, recommendations of such Conferences concerning the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands and their flora and fauna.

The Conference of the Contracting Parties shall adopt rules of procedure for each of its meetings.

The Conference of the Contracting Parties shall establish and keep under review the financial regulations of this Convention. At each of its ordinary meetings, it shall adopt the budget for the next financial period by a two-third majority of Contracting Parties present and voting.

Each Contracting Party shall contribute to the budget according to a scale of contributions adopted by unanimity of the Contracting Parties present and voting at a meeting of the ordinary Conference of the Contracting Parties.

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Article 7

The representatives of the Contracting Parties at such Conferences should include persons who are experts on wetlands or waterfowl by reason of knowledge and experience gained in scientific, administrative or other appropriate capacities.

Each of the Contracting Parties represented at a Conference shall have one vote, recommendations, resolutions and decisions being adopted by a simple majority of the Contracting Parties present and voting, unless otherwise provided for in this Convention.

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Article 8

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources shall perform the continuing bureau duties under this Convention until such time as another organization or government is appointed by a majority of two-thirds of all Contracting Parties.

The continuing bureau duties shall be, inter alia:

to assist in the convening and organizing of Conferences specified in Article 6;

to maintain the List of Wetlands of International Importance and to be informed by the Contracting Parties of any additions, extensions, deletions or restrictions concerning wetlands included in the List provided in accordance with paragraph 5 of Article 2;

to be informed by the Contracting Parties of any changes in the ecological character of wetlands included in the List provided in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 3;

to forward notification of any alterations to the List, or changes in character of wetlands included therein, to all Contracting Parties and to arrange for these matters to be discussed at the next Conference;

to make known to the Contracting Party concerned, the recommendations of the Conferences in respect of such alterations to the List or of changes in the character of wetlands included therein.

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Article 9

This Convention shall remain open for signature indefinitely.

Any member of the United Nations or of one of the Specialized Agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice may become a Party to this Convention by:

signature without reservation as to ratification;

signature subject to ratification followed by ratification;

accession.

Ratification or accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (hereinafter referred to as "the Depositary").

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Article 10

This Convention shall enter into force four months after seven States have become Parties to this Convention in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 9.

Thereafter this Convention shall enter into force for each Contracting Party four months after the day of its signature without reservation as to ratification, or its deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession.

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Article 10 bis

This Convention may be amended at a meeting of the Contracting Parties convened for that purpose in accordance with this article.

Proposals for amendment may be made by any Contracting Party.

The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be communicated to the organization or government performing the continuing bureau duties under the Convention (hereinafter referred to as "the Bureau") and shall promptly be communicated by the Bureau to all Contracting Parties. Any comments on the text by the Contracting Parties shall be communicated to the Bureau within three months of the date on which the amendments were communicated to the Contracting Parties by the Bureau. The Bureau shall, immediately after the last day for submission of comments, communicate to the Contracting Parties all comments submitted by that day.

A meeting of Contracting Parties to consider an amendment communicated in accordance with paragraph 3 shall be convened by the Bureau upon the written request of one third of the Contracting Parties. The Bureau shall consult the Parties concerning the time and venue of the meeting.

Amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Contracting Parties present and voting.

An amendment adopted shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have accepted it on the first day of the fourth month following the date on which two thirds of the Contracting Parties have deposited an instrument of acceptance with the Depositary. For each Contracting Party which deposits an instrument of acceptance after the date on which two thirds of the Contracting Parties have deposited an instrument of acceptance, the amendment shall enter into force on the first day of the fourth month following the date of the deposit of its instrument of acceptance.

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Article 11

This Convention shall continue in force for an indefinite period.

Any Contracting Party may denounce this Convention after a period of five years from the date on which it entered into force for that party by giving written notice thereof to the Depositary. Denunciation shall take effect four months after the day on which notice thereof is received by the Depositary.

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Article 12

1. The Depositary shall inform all States that have signed and acceded to this Convention as soon as possible of:

a.signatures to the Convention;

b.deposits of instruments of ratification of this Convention;

c.deposits of instruments of accession to this Convention;

d.the date of entry into force of this Convention;

e.notifications of denunciation of this Convention.

2. When this Convention has entered into force, the Depositary shall have it registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter.

4近年活动

  湿地公约新会标

199610月湿地公约第19次常委会决定将每年22日定为世界湿地日,每年确定一个主题。利用这一天,政府机构、组织和公民可以采取大大小小的行动来提高公众对湿地价值和效益的认识。

1998年:公约常委会通过新的《湿地公约》标志(Ramsar 拉姆萨尔文字配以由蓝变绿的背景,两条白线代表波浪)。该标志显示公约内涵的扩展,从单纯的水鸟栖息地到以水为主体的变化。

19995月在哥斯达黎加召开的第7届缔约方大会上,决定编纂一套工具书,正式确认国际鸟类组织、世界保护联盟、湿地国际和世界自然基金会为公约的伙伴组织。

2002年:历时九天的湿地公约第八次缔约国大会已于20021126日在西班牙瓦伦西亚圆满闭幕。

2008年:第10届湿地公约缔约方大会于2008108日至114日在韩国釜山召开。

2011年:20111114-18日,第十一届《湿地公约》缔约国大会亚洲区域协调会(Ramsar Pre-COP11 Asia Regional Meeting)在印度尼西亚首都雅加达召开,会议就亚洲各缔约国"《湿地公约》2009-2015战略计划"执行情况、亚洲湿地区域动议报告、当前履约面临的主要问题,以及就提交将于2012年在罗马尼亚召开的《湿地公约》第十一届缔约方大会的决议草案等方面进行了深入而广泛地磋商和交流,预选了2013-2015年亚洲区域常委会成员。

2013:201322日是第17个世界湿地日,主题为"湿地和水资源管理",宣传口号为"湿地守护水资源",旨在提高人们对于湿地和水资源之间相互关系重要性的认识。[1]

湿地的概念,不同国家的定义有所差别。比较通行的说法是指"长久或暂时性沼泽地、泥炭地或水域地带,或为淡水、半咸水、咸水体,包括低潮时不超过6米的水域"。由于在保持水源、抵御洪水、控制污染、调节气候、维护生物多样性等方面具有重要作用,湿地被誉为"地球之肾",与森林、海洋并称全球三大生态系统。

随着人类活动日益频繁,全球湿地遭到前所未有的破坏。197122日,18个国家的代表在伊朗南部海滨小城拉姆萨尔签署了《关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约》(Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat,也称作《拉姆萨尔公约》。公约的主要作用是通过全球各国政府间的共同合作,保护湿地及其生物多样性,特别是水禽及其赖以生存的环境。

为提高公众对湿地价值和效益的认识,199610月,公约第19次常务委员会决定将每年的22日定为世界湿地日。目前公约缔约方已达164个,共有2083个湿地被列入国际重要湿地名录,国际重要湿地指定总面积近198亿公顷。

我国于1992年加入《拉姆萨尔公约》。我国自然湿地面积占国土面积的3.77%,远低于世界平均水平,且长期遭受人口急剧膨胀和经济快速发展带来的威胁。而我国96%的可利用淡水资源被保存在各类湿地中。多年来,经过不懈努力,全国湿地保护面积大幅增加,基本形成以41处国际重要湿地、550多处湿地自然保护区、400多处湿地公园为主体的全国湿地保护体系。[1]

5湿地保护

中国自1992年加入《湿地公约》后,采取了一系列重要措施保护湿地,并于当年通过申请将首批7个湿地保护区(黑龙江省扎龙、吉林省向海、江西省鄱阳湖、湖南省东洞庭湖、海南省东寨港和青海省鸟岛等)列入《国际重要湿地名录》。国家林业局还专门成立了《湿地公约》履约办公室,通过广泛的国内外合作提高中国湿地保护的履约能力。到2006年底,我国已经建立了各种级别的湿地保护区473个,已有45%的天然湿地纳入保护区范围得到了较好保护。截至2008年,中国共有36块湿地加入《国际重要湿地名录》,(可参看"中国国际重要湿地名录")达赉湖等4个湿地类型保护区还加入了国际人与生物圈网络。20079月,国务院批准成立中国履行《湿地公约》国家委员会,协调和指导国内相关部门开展履行《湿地公约》相关工作。

全球湿地面积达5.73亿公顷。中国首次湿地资源调查显示,我国现有湿地面积约3848万公顷,居亚洲第一位,世界第四位。据全国湿地资源调查统计,我国现有100公顷以上的各类湿地3848.55万公顷(不包括水稻田),现存自然或半自然湿地占国土总面积的3.77%2005年)。

中国加入《湿地公约》20周年座谈会20121214日在北京召开,国务院副总理回良玉出席座谈会并讲话。他强调,要坚持节约优先、保护优先、自然修复为主的方针,大力推进湿地保护与恢复,让湿地保护事业在改革开放和社会主义现代化建设中取得新进展、实现新突破、迈上新台阶。[2]

湿地是珍贵的自然资源,也是重要的生态系统,具有不可替代的综合功能。加入《湿地公约》二十年来,中国政府高度重视并切实加强湿地保护与恢复工作,积极履行公约规定的各项义务,全国湿地保护体系基本形成,大部分重要湿地得到抢救性保护,局部地区湿地生态状况得到明显改善,为全球湿地保护和合理利用事业作出了重要贡献。[2]

中国湿地面积占国土面积的比例远低于世界平均水平,并面临气候变化和人类活动的影响,湿地面积减少、功能退化的趋势尚未得到根本遏制。各级各方面要把湿地保护摆上更加突出的位置,与经济社会发展各项任务统筹考虑,落实好湿地保护责任。要积极推进法制建设,建立湿地保护长效机制,强化宣传教育,提高全民湿地保护意识。要切实加大投入,实施好湿地保护恢复重大工程,不断扩大湿地面积,增强湿地生态系统稳定性,进一步改善生态和民生。中国政府将一如既往地履行公约责任,与《湿地公约》秘书处、其它各缔约国及有关国际组织深化合作,与国际社会协调一致行动,相互学习借鉴,为推动全球湿地保护与合理利用、促进世界可持续发展作出应有贡献

信息来源:时时彩万位定胆计划管理员 | 责任编辑:时时彩万位定胆计划管理员